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    Ostindien Company


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    Ostindien Company

    Schau dir unsere Auswahl an east india company an, um die tollsten einzigartigen oder spezialgefertigten handgemachten Stücke aus unseren Shops für. Ausstattung: 1 Spielbrett, 5 Schiffe, 4 Warensteine, 2 Spezialwürfel, 50 Bewegungskarten, 32 Warenkarten, Geldscheine, 1 Block Aufmachung: Das​. Die Britische Ostindien-Kompanie, bis English East India Company, war eine Ostindien-Kompanie, die durch einen Freibrief entstand, den Königin Elisabeth I. einer Gruppe von reichen Londoner Kaufleuten am Dezember ausstellte.

    Ostindien Company Navigationsmenü

    Die Britische Ostindien-Kompanie (British East India Company, BEIC), bis English East India Company (EIC), war eine Ostindien-Kompanie, die durch. Die Britische Ostindien-Kompanie, bis English East India Company, war eine Ostindien-Kompanie, die durch einen Freibrief entstand, den Königin Elisabeth I. einer Gruppe von reichen Londoner Kaufleuten am Dezember ausstellte. Ostindien-Kompanie. aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Die Ostindischen Kompanien waren in. Die britische Handelsgesellschaft der Ostindien-Kompanie annektierte einen ganzen Subkontinent. Ihr Vermächtnis ist noch heute zu spüren. Der Ostindien-Kompanie wurden beispiellose Befugnisse zuteil - ihr oblag die Jahrhundert wurde die East India Company schwer von Skandalen. von 34 Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für Bücher: "Ostindien-Kompanie". Überspringen und zu Haupt-Suchergebnisse gehen. Berechtigt zum. Ergänzend wirkte die East India Company im Jahrhundert als Katalysator für die britische Expansion in China. Der Ostindien-Kompanie.

    Ostindien Company

    Ergänzend wirkte die East India Company im Jahrhundert als Katalysator für die britische Expansion in China. Der Ostindien-Kompanie. von 34 Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für Bücher: "Ostindien-Kompanie". Überspringen und zu Haupt-Suchergebnisse gehen. Berechtigt zum. Der Ostindien-Kompanie wurden beispiellose Befugnisse zuteil - ihr oblag die Jahrhundert wurde die East India Company schwer von Skandalen. Ebenfalls erweiterte sie die Teeproduktion in Indien. Zu Beginn war das ganze System darauf angelegt, dass sich die Angestellten in Indien bereicherten. Die Borat Stream Hd Filme, Ostindien Company Handelskonkurrenten, anderen imperialen Mächten und zeitweilig feindlich gesinnten einheimischen Herrschern umgeben, hatte einen wachsenden Die Fünf Freunde an militärischem Schutz. Das Gesetz wurde jedoch auf Grund intensiver Lobbyarbeit durch die Ostindien-Kompanie und wegen des Vorwurfs der Vetternwirtschaft bei der Benennung von Räten verworfen. In Handelsangelegenheiten behielt die Kompanie ihre alte Selbstständigkeit, doch wurde die Anstellung der höheren Beamten, Richter und Heerführer unter staatliche Aufsicht gestellt. Sie hatten sich mit den Franzosen verbündet und setzten ihren Kampf gegen die Kompanie mit den vier Kriegen von Mysore fort. Verwandte Artikel. Ostindien Company

    Ostindien Company - Von der Kompanie zur Handelsgroßmacht

    Zu Beginn war das ganze System darauf angelegt, dass sich die Angestellten in Indien bereicherten. Karl II. Hälfte des

    Ostindien Company Wenn eine Handelskompanie zum Staat wird Video

    Europa Universalis IV - Niederlande / Niederländische Ostindien-Kompanie #071 Britische Ostindien-Kompanie — gegründet die Niederländische Ostindien-Kompanie — gegründet die Dänische Ostindien-Kompanie — gegründet die Schwedische Ostindien-Kompanie — gegründetgeändert die Portugiesische Ostindien-Kompanie — gegründet die Französische Ostindien-Kompanie — gegründet die Kaiserliche Ostindische Kompanie — gegründet und Kinoex durch den habsburgischen Kaiser Karl VI. Auch begrenzte die Niederlage den Einfluss Strigoi industriellen Revolution in den französischen Gebieten. Nach diesem Müslüm funktionierte die Kompanie als reguliertes Tochterunternehmen der Krone, und die Kompanie dehnte ihren Einfluss auf die benachbarten Gebiete durch Zwang Heute Girl Drohungen aus. Insbesondere die beiden erstgenannten Kompanien haben im Verlaufe ihrer Geschichte welthistorische Bedeutung erlangt. Die Ostindischen Kompanien waren in mehreren Nationen Europas bestehende Gesellschaften, die Prinz Alexander Von Anhalt den Handel mit Indien Indienhandel sowie Südost- und Ostasien Benjamin vor allem mit den Hubert Und Staller Youtube Gewürzinseln und dem Kaiserreich China privilegiert waren. Madras britisch seit und Bombay seit boten weitere Ansatzpunkte, da die Gouverneure von Madras und Bombay dem Generalgouverneur von Bengalen unterstellt wurden. Diesem Abkommen zufolge lieh die fusionierte Gesellschaft dem Finanzministerium eine Summe von 3. Jahrhundert Ard Live Em Warenströme um: Nun wurden die Produkte der neuen britischen Textilindustrie Madagascar 2 Indien verkauft. Von der Tänzerin zur Söldnerkönigin: Indiens vergessene Macht

    Ostindien Company Der Ausbau der Macht der East India Company

    Diesem Abkommen zufolge lieh die fusionierte Gesellschaft dem Finanzministerium eine Summe von 3. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. George von diesen zurück. Die East India Company war eine gegründete britische Handelsgesellschaft, die das Monopol im Indienhandel erhielt. Bis dahin hatte sich die Ostindien-Kompanie aber in alle möglichen Verwicklungen verstrickt, von den Opiumeinfuhren Marie Lou Sellem Nackt China die Kompanie baute Opium in Indien an, exportierte es illegal nach China und tauschte es dort gegen begehrte chinesische Handelsgüter bis zum internationalen Sklavenhandel sie erwarb auf mehreren Expeditionen Sklaven und nutzte deren Arbeitskraft im Twilight New Moon Stream Deutsch rüstete man mit Ostindien Company

    Ostindien Company - Beitrags-Navigation

    Der vorliegende Artikel gibt Ihnen Hilfestellung beim korrekten Zitieren. Diese sahen vor, dass seine Nominierung in Zukunft durch einen Viererrat geschehen sollte, der durch die Krone ernannt wurde. Trotz hartnäckigen Widerstandes der Ostindien-Lobby im Parlament und durch die Anteilseigner der Kompanie wurde das Gesetz verabschiedet. Hälfte des

    Mit derartiger Unterstützung gelang es der Kompanie bald, die Portugiesen zu übertreffen, die Niederlassungen in Goa und Bombay gegründet hatten.

    George in Madras und Bombay Castle. Im Jahr erweiterte der Mogulkaiser seine Gastfreundschaft für die englischen Händler in der Region Bengalen und im Jahr befreite einer seiner Nachfolger sie vollständig von den Zöllen für Waren.

    Die Kompanie, von Handelskonkurrenten, anderen imperialen Mächten und zeitweilig feindlich gesinnten einheimischen Herrschern umgeben, hatte einen wachsenden Bedarf an militärischem Schutz.

    Deshalb war die Freiheit, ihre militärischen Angelegenheiten selbst zu regeln, ein willkommenes Geschenk, und die Kompanie stellte ab rasch ihre eigenen Streitkräfte auf, die sie hauptsächlich aus der einheimischen Bevölkerung rekrutierte.

    Somit kann man darüber diskutieren, ob die Kompanie ab auf dem indischen Festland einen Staat darstellte, da sie weitgehend souverän war.

    Sie verwaltete die riesigen Gebiete von Bengalen, Madras und Bombay und verfügte über eine erhebliche militärische Schlagkraft.

    Da die Angestellten der Kompanie zum Teil reich waren, konnten sie in ihre Heimat zurückkehren. So standen ihnen dann die Türen zur Macht offen.

    Daraus folgend entwickelte die Kompanie ihre eigene Lobby im Parlament. Trotz allem geriet sie unter Druck ehrgeiziger Geschäftsleute und früherer Partner der Kompanie abschätzig von der Kompanie Gesprächspartner genannt , die ebenfalls private Handelsfirmen in Indien etablieren wollten.

    Dies führte zur Verabschiedung eines Deregulierungsgesetzes Dieses Gesetz erlaubte es jeder englischen Firma, mit Indien zu handeln, sofern es nicht ausdrücklich durch ein Parlamentsgesetz verboten war.

    Hierdurch wurde der Freibrief aufgehoben, der beinahe Jahre in Kraft gewesen war. Doch bald erwarben die mächtigen Anteilseigner der alten Kompanie für Die beiden Gesellschaften konkurrierten eine Zeit lang sowohl in England als auch in Indien um Marktanteile.

    Schnell wurde jedoch klar, dass die ursprüngliche Gesellschaft kaum messbaren Wettbewerb spürte. Beide Gesellschaften fusionierten im Jahr unter einem dreiseitigen Abkommen zwischen dem Staat und den zwei Gesellschaften.

    Diesem Abkommen zufolge lieh die fusionierte Gesellschaft dem Finanzministerium eine Summe von 3. Die Kompanie versuchte, ihre Privilegien dauerhaft zu etablieren, während das Parlament nicht freiwillig die Möglichkeit aufgeben wollte, die Gewinne der Kompanie abzuschöpfen.

    Im Jahr erneuerte ein Gesetz den Status der Kompanie, doch die Verbindlichkeiten wurden zurückgezahlt. Dies verstärkte den Einfluss ihrer Lobby.

    Im Jahr wurde die Lizenz durch ein neuerliches Gesetz bis verlängert. Im Jahr fürchtete die britische Regierung die finanziellen Auswirkungen eines Krieges und stimmte der Ausweitung des Handelsmonopols der Ostindien-Kompanie mit Indien bis zu.

    Im Gegenzug erhielt sie einen weiteren Kredit von einer Million Pfund. Die Gefechte mündeten in dem befürchteten Krieg, und zwischen und lenkte der Siebenjährige Krieg die staatliche Aufmerksamkeit auf die Verstärkung und Verteidigung ihrer Territorien in Europa und Nordamerika.

    Der Krieg fand auch auf dem indischen Subkontinent statt, zwischen den Truppen der Ostindien-Kompanie und französischen Streitkräften. Die Nachfrage nach indischen Rohstoffen wurde durch den Bedarf der Wirtschaft und zur Unterhaltung der Truppen in Kriegszeiten angeschoben.

    Der Krieg endete mit einer Niederlage der französischen Streitkräfte und begrenzte die französischen imperialen Ambitionen. Auch begrenzte die Niederlage den Einfluss der industriellen Revolution in den französischen Gebieten.

    Robert Clive, 1. George von diesen zurück. Die Ostindien-Kompanie erfuhr jedoch weiterhin Widerstand von einheimischen Herrschern. Hierdurch beseitigte er den letzten nennenswerten Widerstand in Bengalen.

    Dieser Sieg entfremdete die Briten und die Mogulkaiser , denen Siraj als autonomer Herrscher gedient hatte. Aber das Mogulkaiserreich befand sich nach dem Tod von Aurangzeb bereits im Niedergang und zerbrach in der Folge in Stücke und Enklaven.

    So wurde Clive zum ersten britischen Gouverneur von Bengalen. Sie hatten sich mit den Franzosen verbündet und setzten ihren Kampf gegen die Kompanie mit den vier Kriegen von Mysore fort.

    Dabei wurde Tipu erschlagen. Mit dem allmählichen Machtverlust des Marathenreichs in der Folge des Krieges mit den Briten sicherten sich diese Bombay und dessen Umgebung.

    Ein besonders bemerkenswertes Zusammentreffen von Streitkräften unter seinem Kommando war die Schlacht von Assaye. Damit sicherten sich die Briten das gesamte südliche Indien mit Ausnahme der französischen Enklaven und einiger einheimischer Herrscher , Westindien sowie Ostindien.

    Die letzten Überreste der lokalen Verwaltung waren auf die nördlichen Regionen um Delhi, Avadh , Rajputana und Punjab begrenzt, wo sich die Präsenz der Kompanie inmitten der lokalen Auseinandersetzungen und zweifelhaften Schutzangeboten seitens der Kompanie immer weiter ausdehnte.

    Drohungen und Diplomatie verhinderten, dass die einheimischen Herrscher sich gegen die Kompanie verbünden konnten.

    Obwohl die Ostindien-Kompanie bei der Unterwerfung widerspenstiger Staaten immer brutaler und ehrgeiziger vorging, wurde es von Tag zu Tag offensichtlicher, dass die Kompanie nicht in der Lage war, die riesigen neu erworbenen Gebiete zu verwalten.

    Zur selben Zeit herrschte in ganz Europa wirtschaftliche Stagnation und Depression, ausgelöst durch die Nachwehen der industriellen Revolution.

    Hierin baten sie um finanzielle Unterstützung. Durch die monopolistischen Aktivitäten wurde jedoch die Boston Tea Party ausgelöst. Dies war eines der wichtigsten Ereignisse, die später zum Amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitskrieg führten.

    Die für Indien bestimmten Armeen als auch diejenigen der Ostindien-Kompanie wuchsen, und mit ihnen auch die Betriebskosten. Die Kompanie wurde durch den Regulating Act for India gezwungen, sich einer Abfolge von Reformen der Verwaltung und der Wirtschaftlichkeit zu unterziehen.

    Trotz hartnäckigen Widerstandes der Ostindien-Lobby im Parlament und durch die Anteilseigner der Kompanie wurde das Gesetz verabschiedet.

    Es führte bedeutsame Kontrollen durch die Regierung ein und ermöglichte es, Land formal unter die Kontrolle der Krone zu stellen, danach jedoch auf zwei Jahre zur Pacht von Ihm unterstand die Verwaltung von ganz Britisch-Indien.

    Diese sahen vor, dass seine Nominierung in Zukunft durch einen Viererrat geschehen sollte, der durch die Krone ernannt wurde.

    Ihm wurde die Macht über Krieg und Frieden gegeben. Der Generalgouverneur und der Rat hatten damit vollständige legislative Kompetenzen. So wurde Warren Hastings zum ersten Generalgouverneur von Indien.

    Der Ostindien-Kompanie wurde es erlaubt, ihr Handelsmonopol zu behalten. Promotion for both British and Indian soldiers was strictly by seniority, so Indian soldiers rarely reached the commissioned ranks of Jamadar or Subadar before they were middle aged at best.

    They received no training in administration or leadership to make them independent of their British officers.

    They were taken by the British in a hard fought campaign by and the French threat defeated. In the middle of the Colonial Governor of India, the 1st Earl of Minto wanted to conquer the lucrative Dutch owned Spice islands famous for nutmeg, mace and cloves.

    For the EIC the occupation of these islands meant not only a curtailment of Dutch and French trade and power in the East Indies but also an equivalent gain to the company of the rich trade in spice.

    In the islands including Banda Neira , Ambon and Ternate fell to a British invasion with little loss. The British held on to the islands until the end of the war — the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of meant that they were handed back to the Dutch.

    The EIC nevertheless had uprooted a lot of the spice trees for transplantation throughout the British Empire. By the s the EIC had established a number of spice gardens in Penang ; by the gardens had significantly expanded to 13, nutmeg trees and as many as 20, clove trees.

    There was a systemic disrespect in the company for the spreading of Protestantism , although it fostered respect for Hindu and Muslim , castes , and ethnic groups.

    The growth of tensions between the EIC and the local religious and cultural groups grew in the 19th century as the Protestant revival grew in Great Britain.

    These tensions erupted at the Indian Rebellion of and the company ceased to exist when the company dissolved through the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act In the 18th century, Britain had a huge trade deficit with China.

    Therefore, in , the company created a British monopoly on opium buying in Bengal , India, by prohibiting the licensing of opium farmers and private cultivation.

    The monopoly system established in continued with minimal changes until So the opium produced in Bengal was sold in Calcutta on condition that it be sent to China.

    The proceeds of the drug-smugglers landing their cargoes at Lintin Island were paid into the company's factory at Canton and by , most of the money needed to buy tea in China was raised by the illegal opium trade.

    The company established a group of trading settlements centred on the Straits of Malacca called the Straits Settlements in to protect its trade route to China and to combat local piracy.

    The settlements were also used as penal settlements for Indian civilian and military prisoners. In with the amount of smuggled opium entering China approaching 1, tons a year, the Chinese imposed a death penalty for opium smuggling and sent a Special Imperial Commissioner, Lin Zexu , to curb smuggling.

    This resulted in the First Opium War — After the war Hong Kong island was ceded to Britain under the Treaty of Nanking and the Chinese market opened to the opium traders of Britain and other nations.

    Legalisation stimulated domestic Chinese opium production and increased the importation of opium from Turkey and Persia. This increased competition for the Chinese market led to India's reducing its opium output and diversifying its exports.

    The British government issues a series of regulations over the years. The company employed many junior clerks, known as "writers", to record the details of accounting, managerial decisions, and activities related to the company, such as minutes of meetings, copies of Company orders and contracts, and filings of reports and copies of ship's logs.

    The company kept good financial statistics. Although the company was becoming increasingly bold and ambitious in putting down resisting states, it was becoming clearer that the company was incapable of governing the vast expanse of the captured territories.

    The Bengal famine of , in which one-third of the local population died, caused distress in Britain. Military and administrative costs mounted beyond control in British-administered regions in Bengal because of the ensuing drop in labour productivity.

    At the same time, there was commercial stagnation and trade depression throughout Europe. The directors of the company attempted to avert bankruptcy by appealing to Parliament for financial help.

    This led to the passing of the Tea Act in , which gave the company greater autonomy in running its trade in the American colonies, and allowed it an exemption from tea import duties which its colonial competitors were required to pay.

    When the American colonists and tea merchants were told of this Act, they boycotted the company tea.

    Although the price of tea had dropped because of the Act, it also validated the Townshend Acts , setting the precedent for the king to impose additional taxes in the future.

    The arrival of tax-exempt Company tea, undercutting the local merchants, triggered the Boston Tea Party in the Province of Massachusetts Bay , one of the major events leading up to the American Revolution.

    By the Regulating Act of later known as the East India Company Act , the Parliament of Great Britain imposed a series of administrative and economic reforms; this clearly established Parliament's sovereignty and ultimate control over the company.

    The Act recognised the company's political functions and clearly established that the " acquisition of sovereignty by the subjects of the Crown is on behalf of the Crown and not in its own right".

    Despite stiff resistance from the East India lobby in Parliament and from the company's shareholders, the Act passed. Under the Act's most important provision, a governing Council composed of five members was created in Calcutta.

    The three members nominated by Parliament and representing the government's interest could, and invariably would, outvote the two Company members.

    The council was headed by Warren Hastings , the incumbent governor, who became the first governor-general of Bengal , with an ill-defined authority over the Bombay and Madras Presidencies.

    Hastings was entrusted with the power of war and peace. British judges and magistrates would also be sent to India to administer the legal system.

    The governor-general and the council would have complete legislative powers. The company was allowed to maintain its virtual monopoly over trade in exchange for the biennial sum and was obligated to export a minimum quantity of goods yearly to Britain.

    The costs of administration were to be met by the company. The company initially welcomed these provisions, but the annual burden of the payment contributed to the steady decline of its finances.

    Pitt's Act was deemed a failure because it quickly became apparent that the boundaries between government control and the company's powers were nebulous and highly subjective.

    The government felt obliged to respond to humanitarian calls for better treatment of local peoples in British-occupied territories. Edmund Burke , a former East India Company shareholder and diplomat, was moved to address the situation and introduced a new Regulating Bill in The bill was defeated amid lobbying by company loyalists and accusations of nepotism in the bill's recommendations for the appointment of councillors.

    The Act of 26 Geo. The Act enabled the offices of the governor-general and the commander-in-chief to be jointly held by the same official.

    This Act clearly demarcated borders between the Crown and the company. After this point, the company functioned as a regularised subsidiary of the Crown, with greater accountability for its actions and reached a stable stage of expansion and consolidation.

    Having temporarily achieved a state of truce with the Crown, the company continued to expand its influence to nearby territories through threats and coercive actions.

    By the middle of the 19th century, the company's rule extended across most of India, Burma , Malaya , Singapore , and Hong Kong , and a fifth of the world's population was under its trading influence.

    In addition, Penang Island , ceded from the Kedah Sultanate in Malaya, became the fourth most important settlement, a presidency, of the company's Indian territories.

    In contrast with the legislative proposals of the previous two decades, the Act was not a particularly controversial measure, and made only minimal changes to the system of government in India and to British oversight of the company's activities.

    Sale of liquor was forbidden without licence. It was pointed that the payment of the staff of the board of council should not be made from the Indian revenue.

    The aggressive policies of Lord Wellesley and the Marquess of Hastings led to the company's gaining control of all India except for the Punjab and Sindh , and some part of the then kingdom of Nepal under the Sugauli Treaty.

    The Indian princes had become vassals of the company. But the expense of wars leading to the total control of India strained the company's finances.

    The company was forced to petition Parliament for assistance. This was the background to the Charter Act of which, among other things: [94].

    The Act:. British influence continued to expand; in , Great Britain purchased the Danish colony of Tranquebar. The company had at various stages extended its influence to China, the Philippines, and Java.

    It had solved its critical lack of cash needed to buy tea by exporting Indian-grown opium to China. China's efforts to end the trade led to the First Opium War — It also introduced a system of open competition as the basis of recruitment for civil servants of the company and thus deprived the directors of their patronage system.

    Under the act, for the first time the legislative and executive powers of the governor-general's council were separated. It also added six additional members to the governor-general's executive committee.

    The Indian Rebellion of also known as the Indian Mutiny or Sepoy Mutiny resulted in widespread devastation in India: many condemned the East India Company for permitting the events to occur.

    The Crown took over its Indian possessions, its administrative powers and machinery, and its armed forces. The company remained in existence in vestigial form, continuing to manage the tea trade on behalf of the British Government and the supply of Saint Helena until the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act came into effect, on 1 January This Act provided for the formal dissolution of the company on 1 June , after a final dividend payment and the commutation or redemption of its stock.

    It accomplished a work such as in the whole history of the human race no other trading Company ever attempted, and such as none, surely, is likely to attempt in the years to come.

    After occupying premises in Philpot Lane from to ; in Crosby House , Bishopsgate , from to ; and in Leadenhall Street from to , the company moved into Craven House, an Elizabethan mansion in Leadenhall Street.

    The building had become known as East India House by It was completely rebuilt and enlarged in —; and further significantly remodelled and expanded in — It was finally vacated in and demolished in — The site is now occupied by the Lloyd's building.

    In , the company decided to build its own ships and leased a yard on the River Thames at Deptford. By , the yard having become too small, an alternative site was acquired at Blackwall : the new yard was fully operational by It was sold in , although for some years East India Company ships continued to be built and repaired there under the new owners.

    The docks were taken over by the Port of London Authority in , and closed in The East India College was founded in as a training establishment for "writers" i.

    It was initially located in Hertford Castle , but moved in to purpose-built premises at Hertford Heath , Hertfordshire. In the college closed; but in the buildings reopened as a public school , now Haileybury and Imperial Service College.

    The East India Company Military Seminary was founded in at Addiscombe , near Croydon , Surrey, to train young officers for service in the company's armies in India.

    It was based in Addiscombe Place, an early 18th-century mansion. The government took it over in , and renamed it the Royal Indian Military College.

    In it was closed, and the site was subsequently redeveloped. In , the company entered into an agreement by which those of its servants who were certified insane in India might be cared for at Pembroke House, Hackney , London, a private lunatic asylum run by Dr George Rees until , and thereafter by Dr William Williams.

    The arrangement outlasted the company itself, continuing until , when the India Office opened its own asylum, the Royal India Asylum , at Hanwell , Middlesex.

    The East India Club in London was formed in for officers of the company. The Club still exists today as a private gentlemen's club with its club house situated at 16 St.

    James's Square , London. The East India Company was one of the most powerful and enduring organisations in history and had a long lasting impact on the Indian Subcontinent, with both positive and harmful effects.

    Although dissolved by the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act following the rebellion of , it stimulated the growth of the British Empire.

    Its professionally trained armies rose to dominate the sub-continent and were to become the armies of British India after It played a key role in introducing English as an official language in India.

    This also led to Macaulayism in the Indian subcontinent. Once the East India Company took over Bengal in the treaty of Allahabad it collected taxes which it used to further its expansion to the rest of India and did not have to rely on venture capital from London.

    It returned a high profit to those who risked original money for earlier ventures into Bengal. During the first century of the East India Company's expansion in India, most people in India lived under regional kings or Nawabs.

    By the late 18th century many Moghuls were weak in comparison to the rapidly expanding Company as it took over cities and land, and built roads, bridges and railways.

    Work began in on the first railway, the Great Indian Peninsula Railway , running for 21 miles The increasingly large territory the company was annexing and collecting taxes was also run by the local Nawabs.

    In essence, it was a dual administration. Between and Robert Clive gave the responsibility of tax collecting, diwani , to the Indian deputy and judicial and police responsibilities to other Indian deputies.

    The Company concentrated its new power of collecting revenue and left the responsibilities to the Indian agencies. The East India Company took the beginning steps of British takeover of power in India for centuries to come.

    In , the company made Warren Hastings , who had been in India with the Company since , its first governor-general to manage and overview all of the annexed lands.

    The dual administration system came to an end. Hastings learned Urdu and Persian and took great interest in preserving ancient Sanskrit manuscripts and having them translated into English.

    He employed many Indians as officials. Hastings used Sanskrit texts for Hindus and Arabic texts for Muslims. This is still used in Pakistani and Bangladeshi courts today in civil law.

    Hastings also annexed lands and kingdoms and enriched himself in the process. His enemies in London used this against him to have him impeached. See Impeachment of Warren Hastings.

    Charles Cornwallis , widely remembered as having surrendered to George Washington following the Siege of Yorktown in , replaced Hastings.

    Cornwallis distrusted Indians and replaced Indians with Britons. He introduced a system of personal land ownership for Indians. This change caused much conflict since most illiterate people had no idea why they suddenly became land renters from land owners.

    The Mughals, Marathas and other local rulers often had to choose to fight against the company and lose everything or cooperate with the company and receive a big pension but lose their Empires or Kingdoms.

    The British East India Company gradually took over most of India by threat, intimidation, bribery or outright war. The East India Company was the first company to record the Chinese usage of orange-flavoured tea, which led to the development of Earl Grey tea.

    The East India Company introduced a system of merit-based appointments that provided a model for the British and Indian civil service. Widespread corruption and looting of Bengal resources and treasures during its rule resulted in poverty.

    A proportion of the loot of Bengal went directly into Clive's pocket. Critics have argued the company damaged the Indian economy through exploitive economic policies and looting.

    National Geographic There has been much debate about the number and order of stripes in the field of the flag. The East India Company's original coat of arms was granted in The blazon of the arms is as follows:.

    The supporters were two sea lions lions with fishes' tails and the motto was Deo ducente nil nocet Latin: Where God Leads, Nothing Harms.

    The East India Company's later arms, granted in , were: "Argent a cross Gules; in the dexter chief quarter an escutcheon of the arms of France and England quarterly, the shield ornamentally and regally crowned Or.

    When the East India Company was chartered in , it was still customary for individual merchants or members of companies such as the Company of Merchant Adventurers to have a distinguishing merchant's mark which often included the mystical "Sign of Four" and served as a trademark.

    The East India Company's merchant mark consisted of a "Sign of Four" atop a heart within which was a saltire between the lower arms of which were the initials "EIC".

    This mark was a central motif of the East India Company's coinage [] and forms the central emblem displayed on the Scinde Dawk postage stamps.

    This was not so that they could carry cannon to fend off warships, privateers, and pirates on their voyages to India and China that they could do without permission but so that, should they have the opportunity to take a prize, they could do so without being guilty of piracy.

    Similarly, the Earl of Mornington , an East India Company packet ship of only six guns, also sailed under a letter of marque.

    In addition, the company had its own navy, the Bombay Marine , equipped with warships such as Grappler. These vessels often accompanied vessels of the Royal Navy on expeditions, such as the Invasion of Java.

    At the Battle of Pulo Aura , which was probably the company's most notable naval victory, Nathaniel Dance , Commodore of a convoy of Indiamen and sailing aboard the Warley , led several Indiamen in a skirmish with a French squadron, driving them off.

    On this occasion the Indiamen also succeeded in bluffing their way to safety, and without any shots even being fired.

    East Indiamen were large and strongly built and when the Royal Navy was desperate for vessels to escort merchant convoys it bought several of them to convert to warships.

    Other examples include:. Their design as merchant vessels meant that their performance in the warship role was underwhelming and the Navy converted them to transports.

    The catalogue is searchable online in the Access to Archives catalogues. Published catalogues exist of East India Company ships' journals and logs, —; [] and of some of the company's daughter institutions, including the East India Company College, Haileybury, and Addiscombe Military Seminary.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the 16th—19th-century English and British trading company.

    For other uses, see East India Company disambiguation. Company flag Former type. Great Britain. Portuguese India — British India — Further information: Anglo-Spanish War — See also: Establishment of English trade in Bengal — Main article: First Anglo-Afghan War.

    Main articles: Presidency armies and Company rule in India. Main article: English Education Act Main article: Indian Rebellion of Further information: Flag of the East India Company.

    Historical depictions. Main article: India Office Records. British Empire portal Companies portal. National Army Museum.

    Retrieved 29 December Simla: Argus Press. Retrieved 30 July Encyclopaedia Britannica. University of Wisconsin Press.

    Archived from the original on Retrieved 20 September British Library. Retrieved 21 September Archived from the original on 30 March Columbia University in the City of New York.

    Columbia University and Project Gutenberg. The Accounting Historians Journal. Encyclopedia Britannica. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient.

    Oxford University Press. India under Colonial Rule — Pearson Longmans. Lennox Algernon , — New York: Routledge. The Guardian. Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 3 April International Strategies For the Globally Minded.

    Escape Artist. Kanak Publications. Imperial Gazetteer of India. B Oxford: Clarendon Press. Baldwin and Cradock. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, Motilal Banarsidass.

    Stanford, Cal. Retrieved 18 February Dorset Press. England's quest of eastern trade ed. London: A. The History of British India.

    Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy. Fordham University. Imago Mundi. The history of British India: a chronology. Greenwood Publishing Group.

    Retrieved 7 July International Institute of Social history. Retrieved 7 August SLIS Connecting. Retrieved 21 June South Asia LSE.

    Retrieved 19 August Official Home of United Kingdom Legislation. Journal of World History. Stanford University Press. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    The British Library. Retrieved 16 June London: Tempus Publishing. Dictionary of Wars. Revised Edition. Afghanistan: A Country Study. Retrieved 23 September Lamoreaux, Naomi R.

    Organizations, Civil Society, and the Roots of Development. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Hill at the Government Press.

    The Microcosm of London, or London in Miniature. London: Methuen. Land Forces of Britain, the Empire and Commonwealth.

    Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 4 September The big box swindle. Retrieved 20 April The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History.

    Historical Dictionary of the British Empire. Delhi, the Capital of India. Asian Educational Services. CBC News. Archived from the original on 16 December

    Die East India Company war eine gegründete britische Handelsgesellschaft, die das Monopol im Indienhandel erhielt. Es entstand ein für die Briten ein. Many translated example sentences containing "British East India company" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Ausstattung: 1 Spielbrett, 5 Schiffe, 4 Warensteine, 2 Spezialwürfel, 50 Bewegungskarten, 32 Warenkarten, Geldscheine, 1 Block Aufmachung: Das​. Schau dir unsere Auswahl an east india company an, um die tollsten einzigartigen oder spezialgefertigten handgemachten Stücke aus unseren Shops für. Help Learn Bigger edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Die Kompanie Comics Sex sich in Indien selbst wie ein Staat und brachte ihren Anteilseignern und Peter Wright Mutterland damit saftige Einnahmen ein. Archived from the original on 10 July John, Ian. The company was forced to petition Parliament for assistance.

    Er erlaubte ihr sogar noch einiges mehr! So durfte die Kompanie nicht nur eigene Truppen aufstellen, nein, sie durfte auch ihr eigenes Geld prägen, selbständig Kriege erklären und die Gerichtsbarkeit in ihren Gebieten übernehmen.

    Damit wurde die Kompanie de-facto zu einem Staat und benahm sich in den von ihr kontrollierten Teilen Indiens auch so. Als dann etwas später auch noch das indische Mogulreich zerfiel, witterte die Ostindien Kompanie ihre Chance und brachte weite Teile des indischen Subkontinents und ihre Kontrolle — ihre politische Kontrolle!

    Auch nicht etwas, was man unbedingt einer privaten Handelskompanie überlassen möchte. Im Es kauften sich zu der Zeit immer mehr Mitglieder der Kompanie in die britische Oberschicht ein.

    Das war damals auch nicht sonderlich schwierig. Ein ambitionierter Nabob musste nicht viel mehr tun, als in einem Wahlbezirk mit möglichst wenigen Einwohnern möglichst viel Grund kaufen.

    Diese Wahlen waren dann zu allem Überfluss auch noch öffentlich per Handzeichen. Damit bewegten sich die britische Ostindien-Kompanie und der britische Staat auf einen Teufelskreis zu.

    Die Kompanie benahm sich in Indien selbst wie ein Staat und brachte ihren Anteilseignern und dem Mutterland damit saftige Einnahmen ein.

    Diese hatten somit ein Interesse daran, die Kompanie weiter zu stärken. Somit wurde es immer schwieriger, gegen die Ostindien-Kompanie gerichtete Gesetzesvorlagen durch das Parlament zu bekommen.

    Das politische System der Kompanie erneuerte sich also selbst. Bis die Blase irgendwann platzte …. Die Ostindien-Kompanie war nun eben in erster Linie eine Handelskompanie.

    Ihr Zweck und ihre Aufgabe war zuallererst der Handel. Ihre Mission war es, ihren Anteilseignern Geld einzubringen. Dennoch wurde sie mit der Zeit zu viel mehr als das.

    Mit einem eigenen Militär, einer eigenen Verwaltung und sogar eigener Justiz wuchsen die Aufgaben der Kompanie in Indien immer weiter an. Dass die lokale indische Bevölkerung davon nicht sonderlich profitierte, muss wohl nicht weiter erwähnt werden.

    Doch auch der Kompanie selbst wuchs die Sache irgendwann über den Kopf. Anstatt einer einfachen Finanzspritze entschied sich das Parlament in London aber dazu, die Ostindien-Kompanie mit weiteren Privilegien auszustatten und ihre Geschäfte so wieder lukrativer zu machen.

    Warum die Regierung stattdessen nicht einfach die von ihr selbst verhängten Importzölle auf Tee nach Amerika abschaffte, bleibt wohl für immer ein Mysterium.

    Die amerikanischen Siedler nahmen das Ganze nicht dann auch nicht so gut an und reagierten mit der Boston Tea Party.

    Für die Ostindien-Kompanie setzte mit dieser Episode auch ein langsamer Abstieg ein. That led to the Battle of Buxar. Having sided with the French during the Revolutionary War, the rulers of Mysore continued their struggle against the company with the four Anglo-Mysore Wars.

    Mysore finally fell to the company forces in , in the fourth Anglo-Mysore war during which Tipu Sultan was killed.

    The last vestiges of local administration were restricted to the northern regions of Delhi, Oudh , Rajputana , and Punjab , where the company's presence was ever increasing amidst infighting and offers of protection among the remaining princes.

    The hundred years from the Battle of Plassey in to the Indian Rebellion of were a period of consolidation for the company, during which it seized control of the entire Indian subcontinent and functioned more as an administrator and less as a trading concern.

    A cholera pandemic began in Bengal, then spread across India by In the early 19th century the Indian question of geopolitical dominance and empire holding remained with the East India Company.

    Within the Army, British officers, who initially trained at the company's own academy at the Addiscombe Military Seminary , always outranked Indians, no matter how long the Indians' service.

    The highest rank to which an Indian soldier could aspire was Subadar-Major or Risaldar-Major in cavalry units , effectively a senior subaltern equivalent.

    Promotion for both British and Indian soldiers was strictly by seniority, so Indian soldiers rarely reached the commissioned ranks of Jamadar or Subadar before they were middle aged at best.

    They received no training in administration or leadership to make them independent of their British officers. They were taken by the British in a hard fought campaign by and the French threat defeated.

    In the middle of the Colonial Governor of India, the 1st Earl of Minto wanted to conquer the lucrative Dutch owned Spice islands famous for nutmeg, mace and cloves.

    For the EIC the occupation of these islands meant not only a curtailment of Dutch and French trade and power in the East Indies but also an equivalent gain to the company of the rich trade in spice.

    In the islands including Banda Neira , Ambon and Ternate fell to a British invasion with little loss. The British held on to the islands until the end of the war — the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of meant that they were handed back to the Dutch.

    The EIC nevertheless had uprooted a lot of the spice trees for transplantation throughout the British Empire. By the s the EIC had established a number of spice gardens in Penang ; by the gardens had significantly expanded to 13, nutmeg trees and as many as 20, clove trees.

    There was a systemic disrespect in the company for the spreading of Protestantism , although it fostered respect for Hindu and Muslim , castes , and ethnic groups.

    The growth of tensions between the EIC and the local religious and cultural groups grew in the 19th century as the Protestant revival grew in Great Britain.

    These tensions erupted at the Indian Rebellion of and the company ceased to exist when the company dissolved through the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act In the 18th century, Britain had a huge trade deficit with China.

    Therefore, in , the company created a British monopoly on opium buying in Bengal , India, by prohibiting the licensing of opium farmers and private cultivation.

    The monopoly system established in continued with minimal changes until So the opium produced in Bengal was sold in Calcutta on condition that it be sent to China.

    The proceeds of the drug-smugglers landing their cargoes at Lintin Island were paid into the company's factory at Canton and by , most of the money needed to buy tea in China was raised by the illegal opium trade.

    The company established a group of trading settlements centred on the Straits of Malacca called the Straits Settlements in to protect its trade route to China and to combat local piracy.

    The settlements were also used as penal settlements for Indian civilian and military prisoners. In with the amount of smuggled opium entering China approaching 1, tons a year, the Chinese imposed a death penalty for opium smuggling and sent a Special Imperial Commissioner, Lin Zexu , to curb smuggling.

    This resulted in the First Opium War — After the war Hong Kong island was ceded to Britain under the Treaty of Nanking and the Chinese market opened to the opium traders of Britain and other nations.

    Legalisation stimulated domestic Chinese opium production and increased the importation of opium from Turkey and Persia.

    This increased competition for the Chinese market led to India's reducing its opium output and diversifying its exports.

    The British government issues a series of regulations over the years. The company employed many junior clerks, known as "writers", to record the details of accounting, managerial decisions, and activities related to the company, such as minutes of meetings, copies of Company orders and contracts, and filings of reports and copies of ship's logs.

    The company kept good financial statistics. Although the company was becoming increasingly bold and ambitious in putting down resisting states, it was becoming clearer that the company was incapable of governing the vast expanse of the captured territories.

    The Bengal famine of , in which one-third of the local population died, caused distress in Britain. Military and administrative costs mounted beyond control in British-administered regions in Bengal because of the ensuing drop in labour productivity.

    At the same time, there was commercial stagnation and trade depression throughout Europe. The directors of the company attempted to avert bankruptcy by appealing to Parliament for financial help.

    This led to the passing of the Tea Act in , which gave the company greater autonomy in running its trade in the American colonies, and allowed it an exemption from tea import duties which its colonial competitors were required to pay.

    When the American colonists and tea merchants were told of this Act, they boycotted the company tea. Although the price of tea had dropped because of the Act, it also validated the Townshend Acts , setting the precedent for the king to impose additional taxes in the future.

    The arrival of tax-exempt Company tea, undercutting the local merchants, triggered the Boston Tea Party in the Province of Massachusetts Bay , one of the major events leading up to the American Revolution.

    By the Regulating Act of later known as the East India Company Act , the Parliament of Great Britain imposed a series of administrative and economic reforms; this clearly established Parliament's sovereignty and ultimate control over the company.

    The Act recognised the company's political functions and clearly established that the " acquisition of sovereignty by the subjects of the Crown is on behalf of the Crown and not in its own right".

    Despite stiff resistance from the East India lobby in Parliament and from the company's shareholders, the Act passed.

    Under the Act's most important provision, a governing Council composed of five members was created in Calcutta. The three members nominated by Parliament and representing the government's interest could, and invariably would, outvote the two Company members.

    The council was headed by Warren Hastings , the incumbent governor, who became the first governor-general of Bengal , with an ill-defined authority over the Bombay and Madras Presidencies.

    Hastings was entrusted with the power of war and peace. British judges and magistrates would also be sent to India to administer the legal system.

    The governor-general and the council would have complete legislative powers. The company was allowed to maintain its virtual monopoly over trade in exchange for the biennial sum and was obligated to export a minimum quantity of goods yearly to Britain.

    The costs of administration were to be met by the company. The company initially welcomed these provisions, but the annual burden of the payment contributed to the steady decline of its finances.

    Pitt's Act was deemed a failure because it quickly became apparent that the boundaries between government control and the company's powers were nebulous and highly subjective.

    The government felt obliged to respond to humanitarian calls for better treatment of local peoples in British-occupied territories. Edmund Burke , a former East India Company shareholder and diplomat, was moved to address the situation and introduced a new Regulating Bill in The bill was defeated amid lobbying by company loyalists and accusations of nepotism in the bill's recommendations for the appointment of councillors.

    The Act of 26 Geo. The Act enabled the offices of the governor-general and the commander-in-chief to be jointly held by the same official.

    This Act clearly demarcated borders between the Crown and the company. After this point, the company functioned as a regularised subsidiary of the Crown, with greater accountability for its actions and reached a stable stage of expansion and consolidation.

    Having temporarily achieved a state of truce with the Crown, the company continued to expand its influence to nearby territories through threats and coercive actions.

    By the middle of the 19th century, the company's rule extended across most of India, Burma , Malaya , Singapore , and Hong Kong , and a fifth of the world's population was under its trading influence.

    In addition, Penang Island , ceded from the Kedah Sultanate in Malaya, became the fourth most important settlement, a presidency, of the company's Indian territories.

    In contrast with the legislative proposals of the previous two decades, the Act was not a particularly controversial measure, and made only minimal changes to the system of government in India and to British oversight of the company's activities.

    Sale of liquor was forbidden without licence. It was pointed that the payment of the staff of the board of council should not be made from the Indian revenue.

    The aggressive policies of Lord Wellesley and the Marquess of Hastings led to the company's gaining control of all India except for the Punjab and Sindh , and some part of the then kingdom of Nepal under the Sugauli Treaty.

    The Indian princes had become vassals of the company. But the expense of wars leading to the total control of India strained the company's finances.

    The company was forced to petition Parliament for assistance. This was the background to the Charter Act of which, among other things: [94].

    The Act:. British influence continued to expand; in , Great Britain purchased the Danish colony of Tranquebar. The company had at various stages extended its influence to China, the Philippines, and Java.

    It had solved its critical lack of cash needed to buy tea by exporting Indian-grown opium to China. China's efforts to end the trade led to the First Opium War — It also introduced a system of open competition as the basis of recruitment for civil servants of the company and thus deprived the directors of their patronage system.

    Under the act, for the first time the legislative and executive powers of the governor-general's council were separated.

    It also added six additional members to the governor-general's executive committee. The Indian Rebellion of also known as the Indian Mutiny or Sepoy Mutiny resulted in widespread devastation in India: many condemned the East India Company for permitting the events to occur.

    The Crown took over its Indian possessions, its administrative powers and machinery, and its armed forces. The company remained in existence in vestigial form, continuing to manage the tea trade on behalf of the British Government and the supply of Saint Helena until the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act came into effect, on 1 January This Act provided for the formal dissolution of the company on 1 June , after a final dividend payment and the commutation or redemption of its stock.

    It accomplished a work such as in the whole history of the human race no other trading Company ever attempted, and such as none, surely, is likely to attempt in the years to come.

    After occupying premises in Philpot Lane from to ; in Crosby House , Bishopsgate , from to ; and in Leadenhall Street from to , the company moved into Craven House, an Elizabethan mansion in Leadenhall Street.

    The building had become known as East India House by It was completely rebuilt and enlarged in —; and further significantly remodelled and expanded in — It was finally vacated in and demolished in — The site is now occupied by the Lloyd's building.

    In , the company decided to build its own ships and leased a yard on the River Thames at Deptford. By , the yard having become too small, an alternative site was acquired at Blackwall : the new yard was fully operational by It was sold in , although for some years East India Company ships continued to be built and repaired there under the new owners.

    The docks were taken over by the Port of London Authority in , and closed in The East India College was founded in as a training establishment for "writers" i.

    It was initially located in Hertford Castle , but moved in to purpose-built premises at Hertford Heath , Hertfordshire. In the college closed; but in the buildings reopened as a public school , now Haileybury and Imperial Service College.

    The East India Company Military Seminary was founded in at Addiscombe , near Croydon , Surrey, to train young officers for service in the company's armies in India.

    It was based in Addiscombe Place, an early 18th-century mansion. The government took it over in , and renamed it the Royal Indian Military College.

    In it was closed, and the site was subsequently redeveloped. In , the company entered into an agreement by which those of its servants who were certified insane in India might be cared for at Pembroke House, Hackney , London, a private lunatic asylum run by Dr George Rees until , and thereafter by Dr William Williams.

    The arrangement outlasted the company itself, continuing until , when the India Office opened its own asylum, the Royal India Asylum , at Hanwell , Middlesex.

    The East India Club in London was formed in for officers of the company. The Club still exists today as a private gentlemen's club with its club house situated at 16 St.

    James's Square , London. The East India Company was one of the most powerful and enduring organisations in history and had a long lasting impact on the Indian Subcontinent, with both positive and harmful effects.

    Although dissolved by the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act following the rebellion of , it stimulated the growth of the British Empire.

    Its professionally trained armies rose to dominate the sub-continent and were to become the armies of British India after It played a key role in introducing English as an official language in India.

    This also led to Macaulayism in the Indian subcontinent. Once the East India Company took over Bengal in the treaty of Allahabad it collected taxes which it used to further its expansion to the rest of India and did not have to rely on venture capital from London.

    It returned a high profit to those who risked original money for earlier ventures into Bengal. During the first century of the East India Company's expansion in India, most people in India lived under regional kings or Nawabs.

    By the late 18th century many Moghuls were weak in comparison to the rapidly expanding Company as it took over cities and land, and built roads, bridges and railways.

    Work began in on the first railway, the Great Indian Peninsula Railway , running for 21 miles The increasingly large territory the company was annexing and collecting taxes was also run by the local Nawabs.

    In essence, it was a dual administration. Between and Robert Clive gave the responsibility of tax collecting, diwani , to the Indian deputy and judicial and police responsibilities to other Indian deputies.

    The Company concentrated its new power of collecting revenue and left the responsibilities to the Indian agencies. The East India Company took the beginning steps of British takeover of power in India for centuries to come.

    In , the company made Warren Hastings , who had been in India with the Company since , its first governor-general to manage and overview all of the annexed lands.

    The dual administration system came to an end. Hastings learned Urdu and Persian and took great interest in preserving ancient Sanskrit manuscripts and having them translated into English.

    He employed many Indians as officials. Hastings used Sanskrit texts for Hindus and Arabic texts for Muslims.

    This is still used in Pakistani and Bangladeshi courts today in civil law. Hastings also annexed lands and kingdoms and enriched himself in the process.

    His enemies in London used this against him to have him impeached. See Impeachment of Warren Hastings. Charles Cornwallis , widely remembered as having surrendered to George Washington following the Siege of Yorktown in , replaced Hastings.

    Cornwallis distrusted Indians and replaced Indians with Britons. He introduced a system of personal land ownership for Indians. This change caused much conflict since most illiterate people had no idea why they suddenly became land renters from land owners.

    The Mughals, Marathas and other local rulers often had to choose to fight against the company and lose everything or cooperate with the company and receive a big pension but lose their Empires or Kingdoms.

    The British East India Company gradually took over most of India by threat, intimidation, bribery or outright war. The East India Company was the first company to record the Chinese usage of orange-flavoured tea, which led to the development of Earl Grey tea.

    The East India Company introduced a system of merit-based appointments that provided a model for the British and Indian civil service.

    Widespread corruption and looting of Bengal resources and treasures during its rule resulted in poverty. A proportion of the loot of Bengal went directly into Clive's pocket.

    Critics have argued the company damaged the Indian economy through exploitive economic policies and looting. National Geographic There has been much debate about the number and order of stripes in the field of the flag.

    The East India Company's original coat of arms was granted in The blazon of the arms is as follows:.

    The supporters were two sea lions lions with fishes' tails and the motto was Deo ducente nil nocet Latin: Where God Leads, Nothing Harms.

    The East India Company's later arms, granted in , were: "Argent a cross Gules; in the dexter chief quarter an escutcheon of the arms of France and England quarterly, the shield ornamentally and regally crowned Or.

    When the East India Company was chartered in , it was still customary for individual merchants or members of companies such as the Company of Merchant Adventurers to have a distinguishing merchant's mark which often included the mystical "Sign of Four" and served as a trademark.

    The East India Company's merchant mark consisted of a "Sign of Four" atop a heart within which was a saltire between the lower arms of which were the initials "EIC".

    This mark was a central motif of the East India Company's coinage [] and forms the central emblem displayed on the Scinde Dawk postage stamps.

    This was not so that they could carry cannon to fend off warships, privateers, and pirates on their voyages to India and China that they could do without permission but so that, should they have the opportunity to take a prize, they could do so without being guilty of piracy.

    Similarly, the Earl of Mornington , an East India Company packet ship of only six guns, also sailed under a letter of marque.

    In addition, the company had its own navy, the Bombay Marine , equipped with warships such as Grappler. These vessels often accompanied vessels of the Royal Navy on expeditions, such as the Invasion of Java.

    At the Battle of Pulo Aura , which was probably the company's most notable naval victory, Nathaniel Dance , Commodore of a convoy of Indiamen and sailing aboard the Warley , led several Indiamen in a skirmish with a French squadron, driving them off.

    On this occasion the Indiamen also succeeded in bluffing their way to safety, and without any shots even being fired.

    East Indiamen were large and strongly built and when the Royal Navy was desperate for vessels to escort merchant convoys it bought several of them to convert to warships.

    Other examples include:. Their design as merchant vessels meant that their performance in the warship role was underwhelming and the Navy converted them to transports.

    The catalogue is searchable online in the Access to Archives catalogues. Published catalogues exist of East India Company ships' journals and logs, —; [] and of some of the company's daughter institutions, including the East India Company College, Haileybury, and Addiscombe Military Seminary.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the 16th—19th-century English and British trading company. For other uses, see East India Company disambiguation.

    Company flag Deren Aufgabe lag darin, die Beziehungen zu den Herrschern und den lokalen Händlern zu pflegen und auf die Durchsetzung der vereinbarten Privilegien und Handelsspannen zu achten.

    Die Ostindischen Kompanien sind in der Reihenfolge ihrer Gründung:. Insbesondere die beiden erstgenannten Kompanien haben im Verlaufe ihrer Geschichte welthistorische Bedeutung erlangt.

    Britische Ostindien-Kompanie — gegründet die Niederländische Ostindien-Kompanie — gegründet die Dänische Ostindien-Kompanie — gegründet die Schwedische Ostindien-Kompanie — gegründet , geändert die Portugiesische Ostindien-Kompanie — gegründet die Französische Ostindien-Kompanie — gegründet die Kaiserliche Ostindische Kompanie — gegründet und aufgelöst durch den habsburgischen Kaiser Karl VI.

    Nagel : Abenteuer Fernhandel.

    Ostindien Company

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